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Semen Analysis

A semen analysis is used to determine the quality and fertility of semen and sperm. Felicitas Mehiläinen’s andrology laboratory analyses the sperm count, motility, structure and possible antibodies in the semen sample. You will receive a diagnosis, statement and reply in OmaMehiläinen without delay. If you wish, please make an appointment with a clinic doctor to learn more about your results and their significance to your fertility.

Semen quality

A semen analysis is used to examine the quality of the semen sample and to assess the fertility of the sample. Semen analysis is the most important study of male fertility.

Male infertility can be caused by a variety of factors, such as an undescended testicle corrected too late, varicose veins in the testicle, antisperm antibodies or a genital disease, such as chlamydia, in the man’s medical history. These disorders may be congenital, caused by trauma or transient. Infections, various pharmaceutical substances, heavy alcohol consumption, stress or other temporary factors may strongly affect sperm production. Therefore, any abnormal findings in the semen analysis should be controlled before any further examinations.

A sperm sample can be analysed at any time, even if you are not yet considering having a child. You can also have the examination before your first appointment with an infertility specialist. In this case, your test results are already known. Alternatively, you can give the sample at the first appointment.

You can have your sperm analysed by booking an appointment at our andrology laboratory.

Providing a semen sample

The semen sample is given in a sample jar provided by the clinic in Felicitas Mehiläinen’s sampling room. The sampling room is a quiet, private space reserved for this purpose. You can also take the sample at home, if it is possible to deliver it to the laboratory no later than one hour after the sample has been taken. The semen sample must be protected from hot and cold during transport. The optimal transport temperature is 20–37 degrees Celsius.

The ideal time for the semen analysis is 1 to 3 days since the latest ejaculation. This ensures that the result of the analysis is the most reliable.

In most cases, the sample is given by masturbation. Regular condoms cannot be used to collect a semen sample because they contain substances that are toxic to sperm. If necessary, Felicitas Mehiläinen will provide non-toxic condoms suitable for sampling.

Upon receipt of the semen sample, the laboratory will verify the identity of the sample provider, so please take your ID with you.

What does the semen analysis indicate?

The sperm laboratory examines the volume of semen and the sperm count, motility, shape, i.e. morphology, antisperm antibodies, as well as other cells that may be present in the semen. A summary of the results with reference values is prepared. You will receive a diagnosis and a statement indicating the fertility of the semen. The results will be displayed in OmaMehiläinen without delay. If the results are abnormal, the doctor will call you with the results and direct you to any further examinations required. If you wish, you can also book an appointment with a clinic doctor to discuss he results.

Fertility is affected by several factors, including the fertility of the spouse. A sperm analysis explains some of the factors that affect fertility, but for example, sperm DNA damage and other possible lesions at the molecular level are not detected in it. Based on the result of the sperm analysis, your fertility is evaluated as good or very good, somewhat reduced, significantly reduced or the semen may be infertile if no sperm is found in the semen.

If the sperm show signs of agglutination, that is, clinging to each other, it may be caused by antisperm antibodies that impair sperm motility and fertility. To determine the presence of antibodies in the semen sample, an antibody test is performed. Special examinations can still be carried out to determine the amount and quality of antibodies.

Other semen examinations

Other methods can also be used to examine the semen, if necessary.

Sperm trial wash

In some cases, it is sometimes important to know in advance how to separate the sperm from the semen for fertilisation when planning fertility treatments, intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilisation or microinjection treatment. That is why we do sperm trial washes. In a trial wash, the semen is treated, washed and centrifuged according to the same procedure as in fertility treatment. The wash result helps in planning the treatment to determine the best method of processing sperm and the form of fertilisation.

Sperm DNA fragmentation test

The sperm DNA fragmentation test is performed to analyse the fragmentation of sperm DNA. Increased DNA fragmentation has been found to adversely affect male fertility. High fragmentation of more than 30% can complicate the onset of pregnancy or cause an early miscarriage.

Factors that increase the fragmentation of DNA include, for example, lifestyles such as heavy smoking and poor nutrition, certain medications and diseases, old age, environmental toxins and infections. If your DNA fragmentation test result is abnormal, your doctor will explain its significance to you and give you instructions on how to correct the situation.

Sperm oxidative stress

Oxidative stress affects the onset of many diseases and has also been found to have an impact on male fertility. Various internal and external factors can affect the level of oxidative stress. At Felicitas Mehiläinen, it is possible to study the oxidative stress of semen to obtain more information about the quality of the semen and possible background factors affecting fertility. Read more about studying oxidative stress in sperm.

Book an appointment for examinations

You can book a laboratory appointment for semen examinations. When booking an appointment, we will provide more detailed instructions regarding the examination. Sperm analysis appointments can be booked online. Other semen analysis examinations can be booked by calling our clinics.

You can also submit a contact request.

Sperm quality glossary and diagnoses

aspermiaNo semen (no or retrograde ejaculation)
asthenozoospermiaPercentage of progressively motile (PR) spermatozoa below the lower reference limit
asthenoteratozoospermiaPercentages of both progressively motile (PR) and morphologically normal spermatozoa below the lower reference limits
azoospermiaNo spermatozoa in the ejaculate
cryptozoospermiaSpermatozoa absent from fresh preparations but observed in a centrifuged pellet
haemospermiaPresence of erythrocytes in the ejaculate
leukospermiaPresence of leukocytes in the ejaculate above the threshold value
necrozoospermiaLow percentage of live spermatozoa
normozoospermiaTotal number of spermatozoa and percentages of progressively motile (PR) and morphologically normal spermatozoa equal to or above the lower reference limits
oligoasthenozoospermiaTotal number of spermatozoa and percentage of progressively motile (PR) spermatozoa below the lower reference limits
oligoasthenoteratozoospermiaTotal number of spermatozoa and percentages of both progressively motile (PR) and morphologically normal spermatozoa below the lower reference limits
oligoteratozoospermiaTotal number of spermatozoa and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa below the lower reference limits
oligozoospermiaTotal number of spermatozoa below the lower reference limit
teratozoospermiaPercentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa below the lower reference limit
[WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen Fifth Edition 2010]

Why Felicitas Mehiläinen

Felicitas Mehiläinen is the leading fertility clinic in Finland providing a wide variety of fertility treatments ranging from basic infertility care to the most advanced IVF technology available today.
Over 30 years of experience has made it possible for the Felicitas Mehiläinen to offer the highest standards of patient care and reproductive health services in a modern and comfortable clinic.
Our doctors and scientists have always been at the forefront of IVF science and development; in fact, our founder, was part of the team involved in the birth of the Finland’s first IVF baby in 1984.
We always remain focused on the individual needs of each and every patient. We always put out patients first, and that is why we work so hard to listen to and treat every patient individually.